James Lee Byars and Joseph Beuys allow both mystical and magical ritual into their work, making use of symbolic attributes.
Byars defends the aura of art and strives for perfection. His carefully designed, stylish invitations contain statements in gold on black paper and black, red or golden catalogues and artist books revolve around the questions and not the answers. Beuys bases his work on the assumption that everyone is an artist and that art is only important in so far as it contributes to the development of consciousness. He uses perishable material and objects he finds.